Database management is a system for managing the data that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and editing it as required as well as monitoring changes in data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a component of the entire informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a wide range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with a certain scheme, like one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, called attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most widely used type of database currently. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data since it does not require changing various databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and can also include virtual tables that are created from generic data to improve performance.